Expanding Encyclopedia

Dedicated to the furtherance of knowledge and education for the funeral service profession, the Champion Expanding Encyclopedia of Mortuary Practices is published and disseminated to the embalming/funeral service profession and related professions in an effort to educate, inform and advance the knowledge and expertise of practitioners in the profession. All articles are of a timely nature, scientifically based exhaustively researched and highly relevant to the profession and industry. The Champion Expanding Encyclopedia of Mortuary Practices, to this day, sets the standard for Excellence in research publications for the embalming/funeral service profession.

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Encyclopedia #658 Ecobalming with ENIGMA: The Champion Guide to Green Embalming Practices and Postmortem Preparation of Bodies for Natural/Green Burial and Ecocremation/Disposition

by: James H. Bedino, Chemist/Dir. Research, The Champion Company

ABSTRACT: Modern, enlightened 21st Century Ecobalming demands safe, effective, nontoxic, nonhazardous alternatives to toxic and archaic formaldehyde-style embalming and post-mortem practices and products. The funeral industry's traditional hazardous chemicals are no longer acceptable or desirable. I offer to you, then, this comprehensive guide to what is and what is not allowed in Ecobalming procedures and present effective, alternative strategies of post-mortem preparation that incorporates these modern standards. Welcome to the safer and saner future of embalming with Champions™ ENIGMA Line of Ecobalming products.

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Encyclopedia # 657 ENIGMA: Champion's Fourth Generation Chemostatis Infusion Chemicals: Embalming Redefined for the 21st Century

by: James H. Bedino, Chemist/Dir. Research, The Champion Company

ABSTRACT: Champion's Fourth Generation of non-toxic, non-hazardous, extreme low exposure Ecobalming chemicals is introduced and discussed in detail. The Champion ENIGMA Line of ecobalming chemicals fulfills the revised Modern Tenets of Embalming and presents a natural, safe, green and responsible alternative to archaic traditionalist formaldehyde embalming. The checkered past of toxic and dangerous embalming from the 1800's to the present is delineated. Champion's single-handed accomplishments in toxic reduction by the implementaion of the Second and Third Generation of embalming chemicals are reviewed in depth. Champion's Fourth Generation Ecobalming ENIGMA chemicals are shown to have completely clean-sheet MSDS's and fully disclosed formulations. An indepth discussion of chemical composition demonstrates the safety, practicality and enviro-responsible formulations of Champion's ENIGMA chemicals. Use, new defining principles and implementation of ENIGMA chemicals in ecobalming for the 21st Century is discussed. A final summary stresses the necessity and redefinition of embalming in the years to come and confirms the ability of Champion's Fourth Generation fluids to effectively bridge the gap to the future of embalming.

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Encyclopedia # 656 Waterless Embalming: Near-Anhydrous Arterial Injection Achieved

by: James H. Bedino, Chemist/Dir. Research, The Champion Company

ABSTRACT: The misnamed and misunderstood concept of waterless embalming is reexamined in depth from a current and historical perspective. The advantages and disadvantages are evaluated in light of modern embalming theory. The concept of near-anhydrous arterial injection is presented and explained as the closest embalming methodology to "true waterless" embalming. Using nearanhydrous arterial injection chemicals results in nearanhydrous arterial injections approaching 100% chemical with very small amounts of residual water present. Classic dilution embalming, pseudo-waterless embalming and near-anhydrous injection solutions are contrasted and compared. Near-anhydrous arterial injection is seen as the only viable methodology approaching a "true waterless" embalming. Final commentary and a summary completes the article.

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Encyclopedia # 655 Lead Chromate, Toluene And Methylene Chloride Aerosols In Embalming/Restorative Art: Toxic And Unnecessary Exposures For Embalmers

by: James H. Bedino, Chemist/Dir. Research, The Champion Company

ABSTRACT: Lead chromate, toluene and methylene chloride aerosols in embalming/restorative art are discussed as serious and unnecessary hazardous exposures for embalmers. The exposure problems inherent with lead and hexavalent chromium as lead chromates is delineated indepth. The exposure hazards of methylene chloride (dichloromethane) as an aerosol is investigated and commented upon. The hazard of toluene in old-fashioned oil-based cosmetics is discussed. The general reluctance of the embalming industry to seek reduced exposure alternatives to traditional embalming chemicals is remarked upon. Acceptable low-impact, lowered exposure alternatives to both lead chromate and methylene chloride are elucidated and discussed. A summary advocates use of lowered-exposure alternatives in all phases of embalming and restorative art. An extensive bibliography completes the article.

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Encyclopedia # 654 Jaundice Embalming: The Superiority of Glutaraldehyde Versus Formaldehyde

by: James H. Bedino, Chemist/Dir. Research, The Champion Company

ABSTRACT: The enormous impact of jaundice on embalming results is examined. A review of basic jaundice chemistry is conducted while examining the old-fashioned and ineffective embalming solutions for this serious embalming problem. All failure in jaundice embalming is traced to the continued use of formaldehyde in various forms as the primary arterial injectant. The inherent superiority of glutaraldehyde over formaldehyde in jaundice embalming is discussed in detail. Lab and field tests confirm the superiority of glutaraldehyde over formaldehyde in this difficult type of embalming scenario. The reluctance of the embalming industry to abandon formaldehyde for preferred alternatives that deliver better embalming results is cataloged. A summary and conclusion acknowledges and confirms glutaraldehyde as intrinsically superior to formaldehyde in jaundice embalming. Recommendations for use and implementation of glutaraldehyde as a superior and preferred embalming chemical completes the article.

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Encyclopedia # 653 Phenol Versus Formaldehyde As An Exposure Hazard In Embalming: Myth And Reality

by: James H. Bedino, Chemist/Dir. Research, The Champion Company

ABSTRACT: Phenol and formaldehyde are critically evaluated and compared as exposure hazards in embalming operations. The mythology that formaldehyde is somehow safer than phenol is exposed and debunked. Misinformation about phenol and formaldehyde in the embalming industry is catalogued and discussed. A critical comparison of both chemicals demonstrates that phenol is no more hazardous than formaldehyde and in many criteria appears to be less of a total exposure concern in embalming. The reluctance of the industry to face these facts and instead condemn all alternatives to formaldehyde is reviewed. A summary and conclusion that phenol is a reasonable and often times preferred alternative to formaldehyde completes the article.

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Encyclopedia # 652 Hexane In Embalming: A New And Unnecessary Exposure/Disposal Problem For Embalmers

by: James H. Bedino, Chemist/Dir. Research, The Champion Company

ABSTRACT: Hexane is now available as a component of embalming drywash/cleaning solvents. Hexane represents an additional exposure and disposal hazard for embalmers to deal with. The value of hexane usage is minimal, at best, as a component solvent in drywash/ cleaning solvent chemicals in embalming rooms. Hexane hazards and exposure problems are discussed. Attempts by other industries to eliminate hexane usage are reviewed. Environmental concerns and disposal difficulties are delineated. Recommendations for elimination of hexane use and implementation of alternative solvents are discussed and a summary follows.

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Encyclopedia # 651 Glutaraldehyde: Safe Use In Embalming And Exposure Concerns As A Preferred Alternative To Formaldehyde

by: James H. Bedino, Chemist/Dir. Research, The Champion Company

ABSTRACT: Glutaraldehyde hazards and exposure concerns during embalming use are delineated and discussed. Methods of safe use in embalming are catalogued. Myths and rumours concerning the dangers of glutaraldehyde in embalming are debunked. Comprehensive exposure monitorings results are reported which show low to marginal exposures during all phases of embalming operations. Comparison to formaldehyde in health effects and exposure values shows glutaraldehyde to be a reduced exposure hazard in almost all categories of consideration in embalming operations. The embalming industries unwillingness to seek alternatives to formaldehyde, such as glutaraldehyde, is discussed and debated. Recommendations for reasonable and moderate use of glutaraldehyde in embalming, as a lowered exposure hazard alternative to formaldehyde is followed by an extensive bibliography.

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Encyclopedia # 650 Formaldehyde Exposure Hazards and Health Effects: A Comprehensive Review for Embalmers

by: James H. Bedino, Chemist/Dir. Research, The Champion Company

ABSTRACT: A comprehensive examination of formaldehyde exposure hazards, dangers during use and health effects is covered in depth. The implications for embalmers and the overall impact of exposure during embalming is considered. Both short-term and long-term effects of formaldehyde exposure are delineated. Techniques and commentary regarding embalming use of formaldehyde and strategies for drastic reduction of use and exposure are presented. Alternatives for effective embalming without significant use of formaldehyde are discussed and encouraged.

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Encyclopedia # 649 Embalming Chemistry: Glutaraldehyde Versus Formaldehyde

by: James H. Bedino, Chemist/Dir. Research, The Champion Company

ABSTRACT: Glutaraldehyde and formaldehyde embalming chemistry and embalming action are critically evaluated and compared. The histories of both aldehydes and their uses in related fields of interest is discussed, including tanning, histology, electron microscopy, pathology and disinfection/sterilization. Similarities of reaction and result, as well as drastic differences are catalogued and delineated. An indepth discussion of the ramifications for embalmers in conjunction with a summary completes the work.

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Encyclopedia # 648 Chloroform in Embalming: A Modern Absurdity

by: James H. Bedino, Chemist/Dir. Research, The Champion Company

ABSTRACT: Chloroform is still formulated into some old style embalming fluids and still used by some embalmers. The exposure dangers, environmental considerations and disposal hazards of chloroform is enormous. A history of chloroform and it's properties is systematically discussed. The health dangers and disposal problems are delineated. The marginal value of use in embalming fluid is explained. The specifics of chloroform exposure and the problems with disposal in the embalming room are covered. A summary and recommendations for elimination of chloroform in embalming fluid and embalming usage is discussed.

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Encyclopedia # 647 Pregnancy and Embalming: Formaldehyde and other Dangers for Female Embalmers

by: James H. Bedino, Chemist/Dir. Research, The Champion Company

ABSTRACT: An overview of the dangers associated with formaldehyde and other chemical embalming agents usage during pregnancy for female embalmers is presented. Specific dangers associated with formaldehyde in its various forms in the embalming room is discussed. The dangers of solvent exposure in general is investigated with emphasis on volatilities of various solvents and special problems with TCE usage in embalming rooms. Recommendations for embalming avoidance, respirator use and suggestions for low exposure embalming scenarios concludes the report.

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Encyclopedia # 645 Formaldehyde Embalming Sprays: A Modern Myth

by: James H. Bedino, Chemist/Dir. Research, The Champion Company

ABSTRACT: An old and popular myth--the efficacy of formaldehyde embalming sprays is critically evaluated. The history of its use up to the present is discussed. Their value as a disinfectant in embalming is debunked and catalogued. The exposure hazards involved in formaldehyde spray usage is discussed. Modern alternatives toformaldehyde sprays are compared and contrasted. A summary and conclusion is given that confirms the ineffectivenessof formaldehyde sprays, verifies the exposure dangers oftheir use and advocates their replacement with more suitable modern alternatives.

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Encyclopedia # 643 TCE (Trichloroethylene) and Perchloroethylene: New and Unnecessary Exposure Problems in Embalming Rooms

by: James H. Bedino, Chemist/Dir. Research, The Champion Company

ABSTRACT: A review of TCE and its exposure dangers anddisposal problems in embalming rooms is discussed. The reasons for TCE's appearance and the replacement of the old traditional solvents is explained. The dangers of TCE including carcinogenicity and other exposure related health effects along with groundwater contaminationproblems and liabilities is delineated. Perchloroethylene(PERC) is found to have all the disadvantages and dangers of TCE as a drywash/cleaning solvent. Recommendations to minimize or eliminate the use of TCE and perchloroethylene in embalming rooms and discussion of acceptable and safe alternative solvents are offered and explained.

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Encyclopedia # 641 The Embalming Chemistry of Edema

by: James H. Bedino, Chemist/Dir. Research, The Champion Company

ABSTRACT: Edema and the embalming chemical treatment of edematous cases is discussed. A short review of edema is given along with the traditional accepted treatments for edema. A discussion of edema chemistry and how it relates to embalming theory and practice is covered. Results of lab and field testing of various techniques of edema treatment is analyzed. Shortcomings, misunderstandings and failures of typical embalming treatments is overviewed. The efficacy of aldehyde overload and salt usage is examined. New style chemical embalming treatments are discussed with recommendations to achieve maximusm effectiveness in embalming treatment of edema.

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Encyclopedia # 639 Bleach in Embalming Rooms: Overrated and Overused

by: James H. Bedino, Chemist/Dir. Research, The Champion Company

ABSTRACT: An overview of bleach use as a disinfectant in embalming rooms is surveyed. The shortcomings and misuses of bleach in embalming rooms is discussed. A discussion of bleach as a chemical disinfectant and its hazards is outlined. Bleach problems with formaldehyde embalming fluids and ammonia based cleansers is covered. Bleach and its use in CJD embalming cases is discussed. Suggestions for safer, more effective alternatives to bleach in embalming rooms are presented.

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Encyclopedia # 636 Mycobacterium Tuberculosis: An In-depth Discussion for Embalmers

by: James H. Bedino, Chemist/Dir. Research, The Champion Company

ABSTRACT: Tuberculosis and related mycobacterial disease states is comprehensively covered. The ancient and recent history of mycobacteria and their relationship to man and society is delineated. The impact of tuberculosis during the white plague centuries and the debilitating effects on U.S. society in the 40's and 50's is discussed. The tuberculosis organism, itself, and its pathophysiology is reviewed. The impact from the new epidemic of the 90's with drug resistant strains is explained and commented on. The dangers in embalming and appropriate safety protocol for embalming is discussed and charted with recommendations for safe precautionary embalming.

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Encyclopedia # 634 Formaldehyde/Wood Dust Exposure Dangers of Autopsy/Hardening Compounds

by: James H. Bedino, Chemist/Dir. Research, The Champion Company

ABSTRACT: The exposure dangers of using formaldehyde/wood dust autopsy and hardening compounds in embalming is discussed. The dangers of wood dust exposure and the health problems with inhalation is delineated and explained. The increased dangers when formaldehyde in various forms is combined with wood dust and other particulates is summarized. Alternatives to old-fashioned autopsy/hardening compounds are reviewed and techniques to reduce or virtually eliminate exposures to formaldehyde/wood dusts are discussed.

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Encyclopedia # 631 Latex Dangers in Embalming: A Report for Funeral Service Practitioners

by: James H. Bedino, Chemist/Dir. Research, The Champion Company

ABSTRACT: The dangers and unsuitability of latex gloves and other latex products for embalming is discussed and explained. The history of latex and its usage in health care and allied fields is surveyed. The allergic potential of latex products and current health problems with latex are discussed in detail. The lack of adequate protection during embalming is noted and appropriate alternatives to latex in embalming is delineated. Recommendations for proper usage of latex and alternatives in embalming is outlined.

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Encyclopedia # 629 Dehydration in Embalming: Causes, Effects and Solutions

by: James H. Bedino, Chemist/Dir. Research, The Champion Company

ABSTRACT: The age old embalming problem of dehydration, both antemortem and postmortem is discussed and surveyed. Causes and their effects at various stages of the embalming process (including pre-embalming, embalming induced and post-embalming) are delineated and explained in depth and innovative solutions are proferred and discussed. Emphasis is placed on proper selection of chemicals used during embalming and avoidance of situations which hasten or accelerate the dehydration process in the embalmed body. Results of extensive field-testing and research are integrated into the discussion.

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Encyclopedia # 628 The Myth of Formaldehyde Gas Phase Embalming

by: James H. Bedino, Chemist/Dir. Research, The Champion Company

ABSTRACT: The common misconception that formaldehyde gas fumes significantly embalm tissues in typical human embalming scenarios is fully discussed and debunked. Controlled laboratory studies on various tissue types demonstrate that no significant embalming occurs under any circumstances. Justification for the use of extremely pungent high-index, high-fuming formaldehyde fumes is shown to be invalid for typical human embalming situations. Various types of aldehyde-based fluids for embalming are discussed and compared. Recommendations of proper use and techniques for exposure control are summarized.

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Encyclopedia # 625 Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease and Related Disorders

by: James H. Bedino, Chemist/Dir. Research, The Champion Company

ABSTRACT: An indepth discussion and explanation of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease along with several related prion driven disorders are covered for the elucidation and education of the embalmer. Early history of the various diseases is outlined with the interrelationships to kuru, scrapie, BSE and other similar neuro-degenerative diseases. The bizarre nature of the causative agent is discussed in detail with its remarkable survivability. The dangers and concerns that embalmers have are delineated and placed in perspective. A suggested protocol to minimize risk during embalming is presented. A summation and suggestions for embalmers completes the article.

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Encyclopedia # 623 Methanol and Isopropanol Exposures In Embalming Rooms

by: James H. Bedino, Chemist/Dir. Research, The Champion Company

ABSTRACT: The properties and uses of methanol and isopropanol in modern chemical industry are discussed. Both methanol and isopropanol's value in embalming and disinfection/sanitation are overviewed. The hazards involved in the use of both chemicals is summarized. A vapor exposure study of both alcohols in embalming rooms was undertaken. Simulated embalmings using extremely high concentrations of both alcohols and worst case scenarios which included no precautions or the use of ventilation were monitored and analyzed. Exposure values for both methanol and isopropanol were found to be well below exposure limits during all monitorings and exposures were insignificant in the majority of monitorings. Ventilation was found to have relatively little or no impact on the exposure readings-with exposure values being only slightly lower when ventilation was utilized. Methanol and isopropanol exposure during embalming is well within accepted safety standards and established limits of exposure.

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Encyclopedia # 621 Phenol Exposure in Embalming Rooms

by: James H. Bedino, Chemist/Dir. Research, The Champion Company

ABSTRACT: The historical and technical facts relating to phenol and its derivatives are discussed. Phenol's disinfection ability and embalming uses are summarized. A phenol vapor exposure study in embalming rooms was conducted. Simulated embalmings under high concentrations of phenol and worst case scenarios which included no precautions or ventilation in conjunction with the use of volatile alcohols as solvents were monitored and analyzed. Results indicate that phenol vapor exposures are moderate or marginal in the worst case scenarios tested and no significant hazard with exposure values well below limits when ventilation is used. exposure values would have been low to insignificant if typical concentrations of phenol found in most embalming fluids were used along with the elimination of volatile alcohols as solvents. Ventilation reduced phenol exposures an average of 30-35% overall and 10-45% during individual phases of the monitoring. The use of phenol products in embalming rooms with proper safety techniques and exposure controls such as ventilation is well within accepted safety standards and limits of exposure.

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Encyclopedia # 619 Waterless Embalming - An Investigation

by: James H. Bedino, Chemist/Dir. Research, The Champion Company

ABSTRACT: Waterless embalming is defined and presented in historical context and perspective. Techniques and dilutions for both conventional and waterless embalming are discussed. A lab analysis of conventional and waterless final dilutions was conducted and the results interpreted. Results of numerous embalmings using conventional versus waterless technique are rated and compared. Advantages and disadvantages of both techniques are analyzed. Conventional technique appears adequate except in extreme cases. Waterless technique appears well suited for difficult and extreme cases, but unnecessary in normal situations. The use of modern formulated fluids appears to minimize the necessity for waterless technique in most situations. A final summary is given.

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Encyclopedia # 616 AIDS : A Comprehensive Update for Embalmers

by: James H. Bedino, Chemist/Dir. Research, The Champion Company

ABSTRACT: AIDS and the various human immunodeficiency viruses are discussed from a current and historical perspecitve including the political and social ramifications thereof. The chemical and biological morphology of HIV and mechanisms of action are reviewed. The dangers presented during the embalming process are discussed. The various therapies and possible vaccines for HIV are cataloged and discussed. AIDS testing and the implications for the blood supply are overviewed. The mechanisms of transmittal and the comparisons to other STD's are highlighted. Recommendations for embalming protocol are reviewed and discussed in detail.

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Encyclopedia # 614 The Use of Ozone in Embalming Rooms: A Critical Study

by: James H. Bedino, Chemist/Dir. Research, The Champion Company

ABSTRACT: A study of the usage of ozone in embalming rooms was conducted. The effects of ozonation on airborne formaldehyde exposure levels was studied. The relative effectiveness of ozone in different embalming scenarios was determined. Ozone was found to reduce the formaldehyde concentrations in air an average of 30-35% under normal embalming conditions. Ozone was less effective in reducing airborne formaldehyde exposure levels resulting from spills of various fluids, with reductions in exposures ranging form 0-30%. Ventilation was found to be far superior to ozone in reducing exposure to formaldehyde fumes. Ozone was found effective in odor control under all conditions. Health implications regarding the use of ozone are also discussed.

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Encyclopedia # 613 Glutaraldehyde Exposure in Embalming Rooms: A Comprehensive Study

by: James H. Bedino, Chemist/Dir. Research, The Champion Company

ABSTRACT: A glutaraldehyde vapor exposure study in embalming rooms was conducted. Various scenarios of potential and actual exposure were investigated. These involved actual embalmings, spillage and use of sanitation solutions. All tests were conducted under worst case situations in which no attempt to reduce exposure was used. Results indicate that exposures were well below recommended limits and were at the limits of detectability in most cases. With the use of proper techniques of exposure control, the exposure to glutaraldehyde fumes would be negligible. The use of glutaraldehyde products in embalming rooms with proper technique is well within accepted safety standards.

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Encyclopedia # 611 Formaldehyde Exposure in Embalming Rooms: Methods of Control

by: James H. Bedino, Chemist/Dir. Research, The Champion Company

ABSTRACT: A formaldehyde vapor exposure study in embalming rooms was conducted. Variables relating to formaldehyde exposure included ventilation systems, embalmers technique of vapor control and quantity and concentration of manufactured embalming fluids. Ventilation and embalmer technique contributed to an 85% reduction in average exposures. Embalming fluid emissions were found to correlate with the formaldehyde concentration (index) of the fluid. A 40% or greater reduction of emissions was obtained by use of glutaraldehyde based, fumeless and low index fluids. Recommendations for lowering formaldehyde exposure levels are discussed.

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